If you are interested in learning more about microcontrollers, there
    are many fine sources of information.  You have your choice of
    printed media (books, periodicals, informative graffiti) or
    interactive (right here on the Internet, or BBSs).

9.1) Books

    8-bit Microcontroller Instruction Set Performance
        - Digitial Systems Consulting / June 1994
        - compares Motorola's M68HC05, Intel's 80x51,
            Microchip's PIC16C5x, and National's COP8
        - lit number 630008
        - (800)272-9959 call this number for copies

    The 16 bit 8096:  Programming, Interfacing, Applications
        - Ron Katz and Howard Boyet
        - Microprocessor Training Inc
          14 East 8th Street, New York, NY  10003
        - Library of Congress Catalog card number:  85-61954
        - According to William Chernoff:  "The book is pretty good -
          mostly software examples.  The one hardware thing I looked
          closely at was wrong - a schematic error.  Oh well."

    The 68hc11 Microcontroller
        - Joseph D. Greenfield (at R.I.T.)
        - Saunders College Publishing, (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich)
        - 1992
        - ISBN 0-03-051588-2
        - A number of the sections make use of the Buffalo monitor.
          This could be useful if you are using the Motorola Trainer EVB.

    The 8051 Family of Microcontrollers
        -Richard H. Barnett
        -Prentice-Hall, 1995 (yeah, that's right, 1995!)
        -ISBN 0-02-306281-9

    8051 Interfacing and Applications
        - Applied Logic Engineering
          13008 93rd Place North, Maple Grove, MN  55369
        - (612)494-3704

    The 8051 Microcontroller
        - I. Scott MacKenzie
        - Prentice Hall
        - 2nd edition, 1995
        - ISBN 0-02-373660-7
        - includes schematics for a single-board computer,
          assembly-language source code for a monitor program, and
          interfaces to a keypad, LEDs, and loudspeaker

    The 8051 Microcontroller
        - James W. Stewart
        - Regents/Prentice-Hall, 1993
        - $27.50, 273 pages
        - includes many interfacing examples (switches, solenoids,
          relays, shaft encoders, displays, motors, and A/D converters)
          and a chapter on top-down design method

    The 8051 Microcontroller: Architecture, Programming and Applications
        - Kenneth J. Ayala
        - 241 pages, soft cover
        - 5.25" diskette with assembler and simulator
        - ISBN 0-314-77278-2, Dewey 004.165-dc20
        - West Publishing Company
          P.O. Box 64526, St. Paul, MN  55164
        - see review in next section

    The Art of Programming Embedded Systems
        - Jack G. Ganssle
        - 1992, 279pp, $55.00
        - ISBN: 0-12-274880-0
        - CONTENTS: Introduction, Initial Considerations.  Elegant
          Structures.  Designs for Debugging.  Design for Test.  Memory
          Management.  Approximations. Interrupt Mamangement.  Real-Time
          Operating Systems.  Signal Sampling and Smoothing.  A Final
          Perspective.  Appendixes: Magazines, File Format.  Serial
          Communications.  Bibliography.  Index.

    Assembly Language Programming (for the MCS-51 family)
        - F. A. Lyn
        - L. S. Electronic Systems Design

    Basic-52 Programmer's Guide
        - Systronix, Inc. (they also sell a Basic compiler)
        - address above

    Beginner's Guide
        - Suncoast Technologies

    A Beginners Guide to the Microchip PIC
        - Nigel Gardner
        - Character Press, Ltd. (UK)
        - ISBN 1 899013 00 8
        - software (on floppy) and hardware guide, debugging techniques
        - suitably titled, for those with no previous microcontroller
        - 19.95 UK Pounds

    The PIC Source Book:
        - assembly language source code on diskette
        - $39
        - Scott Edwards Electronics
          964 Cactus Wren Lane, Sierra Vista, AZ  85635
          (602)459-4802    Fax: (602)459-0623

    C and the 8051
        - Thomas W. Schultz
        - Prentice Hall
        - ISBN 0-13-753815-4

    Data Acquisition and Process Control with the M68HC11 Microcontroller
        - Frederick Driscoll, Robert Coughlin, Robert Villanucci of
          Wentworth Institute of Technology.
        - Macmillan Publishing Company
        - 1994
        - ISBN 0-02-33055-X
        - Several Chapters on the 68HC11, instructions, and EVB;
          chapters on interfacing Analog and Digital signals to the
          68HC11;  example applications of interfaces to temperature,
          load cell, pressure and thermocouple sensors.
        - a good companion to Motorola's "pink" books

    Data book / Handbook / Users' Guide
        - Advanced Micro Devices
        - Dallas (User's guide for the DS5000)
        - Intel
        - Siemens

    Design with Microcontrollers
        - John B. Peatman
        - ISBN 0-07-049238-7
        - This book is on a more advanced level.  Uses both the 68hc11
          and Intel 8096 as example systems.
        - Used for a very popular course on microcontroller design at
          Georgia Tech.

    Embedded Controller Forth for the 8051 Family
        - Academic Press
        - William H. Payne
        - uses a Forth development system available on the Internet

    Embedded Controllers Databook 1992 Edition
        - National Semiconductor Corporation
        - literature number: 400049
        - (800)272-9959 call this number for for copies

    Embedded Systems Programming in C and Assembler
        - John Forrest Brown
        - Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994
        - 304 pages, $49.95
        - ISBN 0-442-01817-7
        - covers Motorola and Intel processors
        - includes diskette with code from the book
        - book review in Dr. Dobb's Journal, November 1994, page 121

    Experimenter's guide
        - Rigel Corporation

    Introduction to Microcontroller Design, Based on the 8051 family of
        - Business Data Computers
          P.O. Box 1549, Chester, CA  96020

    M68hc11 Reference Manual
        - Motorola - literature reference M68HC11RM/AD
        - This document is the "bible" of the 6811 and is a must-have
          for any serious 6811 programmer.

    MC68hc811E2 Programming Reference Guide
        - Motorola - literature reference M68HC811E2RG
        - A pocket-sized guide to the version of the 6811 used on the
          Mini Board

    The Microcontroller Idea Book
        - Jan Axelson (of Microcomputer Journal fame)
        - features the 8052-BASIC microcontroller
        - hands-on guide with complete plans (schematics, design theory,
          program listings, construction details, etc)
        - explains how to use sensors, relays, displays, clock/calendars,
          keypads, wireless links, and more
        - 1994, 273 pages, $31.95 + shipping
        - Lakeview Research, 2209 Winnebago St., Madison, WI  53704
          (608)241-5824  Internet: 71163.3555@compuserve.com
        - contact the author at janaxel@aol.com

    Microcomputer Engineering
        - Gene H. Miller
        - Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ  07632
        - 1993
        - ISBN 0-13-584475-4
        - Explains the basics.  Many clear and concise assembly language
          example programs.
        - Written to be used with the Motorola Trainer (EVB).

    Microcontroller Technology, The 68hc11
        - Peter Spasov
        - Prentice Hall
        - ISBN 0-13-583568-2

    Microcontrollers: Architecture, Implementation, and Programming
        - Kenneth Hintz and Daniel Tabak
        - McGraw-Hill Inc.  1992
        - ISBN 0-07-028977-8

    Microprocessor 1995
        - Jack Quinn, Micrologic Research
        - Integrated Circuit Engineering Corporation
          15022 North 75th St., Scottsdale, AZ  85260-2476
          (602)998-9780   Fax: (602)9481925
        - comprehensive study of the microprocessor industry and market,
          current status, trends, and developments
        - $1495
        - Microprocessor 1996 due out in November

    PIC 16Cxx Development Tools instructions manuals
        - Parallax, Inc.
        - Instruction manual for the Parallax PIC assemblers
        - Instruction manual for the Parallax Software Simulator
        - Instruction manual for the Parallax PIC programmer hardware
        - Details the Parallax PIC instruction set

    PIC 16Cxx Applications Handbook
        - Parallax, Inc.
        - Contains condensed data sheets for '5x, '64, '71, and '84
        - Contains 14 application notes showing circuits and code for
          common projects using the PIC series of microcontrollers.

    Posix.4:  Programming for the Real World
        - Bill O. Gallmeister
        - O'Reilly and Associates, 1995
        - ISBN 1-56592-074-0
        - Part I of the book describes the Posix standard (what it is,
          what it isn't, and what it's for), and explains the principles
          of real time programming (tasking, messages, scheduling, I/O,
          and performance) and why Unix isn't fit for real-time
          programming.  Part II is a reference on the Posix functions and
          header files.  Part III contains much of the code for the
          exercises in the book.

    Programmer's Guide to the 1802
        - Tom Swan
        - Hayden Book Company, Inc., 1981
        - ISBN 0-8104-5183-2
        - good introduction to assembly language progamming and an
          thorough tutorial on the 1802

    Programming Microcontrollers in C
        - Ted Van Sickle
        - HighText Publications, 1994
        - 394 pages, $29.95
        - ISBN 1-878707-14-0
        - thorough tutorial on C programming, covers aspects of C
          programming specific to embedded systems
        - covers the Motorola line of microcontrollers (small to large)
        - book review in Dr. Dobb's Journal, November 1994, page 121

    The Real-Time Kernel
        - Jean Labrosse
        - R&D Publications, Inc.
          Suite 200 1601 W 23rd St., Lawrence, KS  66046
        - (913)841-1631   Fax: (913)841-2624
        - Based on the article "A Portable Real Time Kernel in C"
          in Embedded Systems Programming (Part 1: vol 5 no 5
          May 1992, Part 2: vol 5 no 6 June 1992)
        - originally written for the Intel 186 but ported to HC11
          source code for UCOS11

    Single- and Multiple-Chip Microcomputer Interfacing
        - G.J. Lipovski
        - Copyright 1988
        - 478 pages
        - ISBN 0-13-810557-X (Prentice-Hall Edition)
          ISBN 0-13-810573-1 (Motorola Edition)
        - Based around the 68HC11 it covers both hardware and
          software at undergraduate level, but the emphasis is on
        - Chapter titles:
               1  Microcomputer Architecture
               2  Programming Microprocessors
               3  Bus Hardware and Signals
               4  Parallel and Serial I/O
               5  Interrupts and Alternatives
               6  Analog Interfacing
               7  Counters and Timers
               8  Communications Systems
               9  Storage and Display Systems

    Single- and Multiple- Chip Microcomputer Interfacing (Lab Manual)
        - Peter Song and G. Jack Lipovski
        - Prentice-Hall, 1988
        - ISBN 0-13-811605-9
        - Support for the above book.  Examples based around the Motorola
          EVB and the BUFFALO monitor or the EVBU (or 3-chip micro) and

    User Manual for the CDP1802 COSMAC Microprocessor
        - RCA, 1977
        - contains useful hardware and software techniques

9.2) Data and Reference Books

        - M68hc11 Reference Manual, ref # M68HC11RM/AD
             this document is the "bible" of the 6811 and is a must-have
               for any serious 6811 programmer
             contact Motorola at 800-521-6274 (in the U.S.) to get a free
               copy of this manual
        - MC68hc811E2 Programming Reference Guide, ref # M68HC811E2RG
             a pocket-sized guide to the version of the 6811 used on the
             Mini Board, "ownership of this handy reference is proof of
             being a true 6811 nerd" - by Fred Martin

    National Semiconductor - (800)272-9959 for copies
        - COP8 Databook, ref # 400007
        - COP8 Selection Guide, ref # 630006
        - COP8 Designers Information Kit, ref # 6300007-005
             contains: - COP8 Databook (1994 Edition)
                       - COP8 Selection Guide (1994 Edition)
                       - Independent 8-bit Instruction Set Analysis
                       - Independently prepared software analysis of
                         National's COP8, Motorola's M68Hc05, Intel's
                         80X51, and Microchip's PIC16C5X
                       - Utility and Overview Disks
                       - Self-lead overview on COP8, includes electronic
                         selection guide and sample application code
        - COP8 Utility Disk, Mac ref # 6300000, Windows ref # 630001
             typical microcontroller applications and sample code
             available by ftp nscmicro.nsc.com in/pub/COP8
        - COP8 Overview Disk, Mac ref # 630004, Windows ref # 630005
             self-lead COP8 overview, shows product features/benifits
                and includes a electronic selection guide (2 disks)
             available by ftp nscmicro.nsc.com in /pub/COP8

9.3) Periodicals

    Various magazines and journals (journals seems to be THE popular name
    for magazines these days) provide articles from time to time on
    microcontrollers.  If you are just starting out learning, pick those
    magazines that feature construction articles.

    The Computer Applications Journal (Circuit Cellar Ink)
        - programming and construction articles
        - POB 7694, Riverton, NJ  08077-8784
        - Fax: (203)872-2204
        - Voice orders: (609) 786-0409
        - On-line orders (BBS): (203) 871-1988
        - Email orders: ken.davidson@circellar.com
        - $21.95, $31.95 surface Canada and Mexico,
          $49.95 air all other countries

    Computer Design
        - industry announcements and trends
        - One Technology Park Drive, P.O. Box 990, Westford, MA  01886
        - (508)692-0700

    The Computer Journal
        - programming and construction articles
        - P.O. Box 3900, Citrus Heights, CA 95611-3900
        - (800)424-8825 or (916) 722-4970   FAX: (916) 722-7480
        - BBS: (916) 722-5799
        - WWW: http://www.psyber.com/~tcj
        - Email: tcj@psyber.com
                 Dave Baldwin: dibald@netcom.com
                 Bill Kibler: kibler@psyber.com
        - USENET newsgroup alt.tcj

    Control Engineering
        - industry outlook on control, instrumentation, and automation
        - Cahners Publishing
        - Circulation:
          8773 S. Ridgeway Blvd., Highlands Ranch, CO  80126-2329
        - Editorial/Executive Offices:
          1350 E. Touhy Ave, P.O. Box 5080, Des Plaines, IL 60017-5080

    Dr. Dobbs Journal
        - programming articles, concepts, and designs
        - 411 Borel Ave., San Mateo, CA  94402
        - (415)358-9500

    Electronic Engineering Times
        - industry announcements and trends
        - 500-B Bi-County Boulevard, Farmingdale, NY  11735
        - (516)293-3000

    Electronics Now
        - construction articles
        - Box 55115, Boulder, CO  80321-5115
        - $19.97 one year

    Elektor Electronics
        - programming and construction articles
        - World Wide Subscription Service Ltd
          Unit 4, Gibbs Reed Farm, Pashley Road
          Ticehurst TN5 7HE, England
        - 27 UK pounds
        - Old Colony Sound Lab, P.O. Box 243, Peterborough, NH 03458
        - Tel. (603) 924-6371, 924-6526
        - Fax: (603) 924-9467
        - $57 USA and Canada per year

    Embedded Systems Programming
        - programming and systems design articles
        - Miller Freeman Publications
        - 500 Howard St., San Francisco, CA  94105
        - Miller Freeman: (415)905-2200
          Embedded Systems Programming phone: (800)829-5537

    Forth Dimensions
        - monthly magazine on Forth
        - Forth Interest Group, P.O. Box 2154, Oakland, California 94621
        - (510)893-6784   Fax: (510)535-1295
        - Email: johnhall@aol.com
        - Forth Interest Group home page:

    Inquisitor Magazine
        - If you're the type that watched Gilligan's Island for its
          socio-political insights, then you'll love a new 'zine that
          just crossed my desk - Inquisitor Magazine.  It's general
          philosophy seems to be ... well, it seems to be ... uh, yeah!
          Technical in nature, bizarre, tongue in cheek, eclectic,
          electric, did I mention bizarre(?), and lots of fun.  Worth
          looking at if you like the out of the ordinary.  The moving
          force behind this magazine is Daniel Drennan, who seems to have
          suffered from an overdose of radiation from his computer
          monitor ;-).
        - Planetarium Station, P.O.Box 132
          New York, NY  10024-0132
        - (212)595-8370
        - Email: inquisitor@echonyc.com
        - $16 per year (4 issues)

    Microcomputer Journal (formerly Computer Craft)
        - programming and construction articles
        - 76 N. Broadway, Hicksville, NY  11801
        - $18.95 one year, foreign $23.00, foreign air mail $76.00

    Midnight Engineering
        - 1700 Washington Ave., Rocky Road, CO  81067
        - (719)254-4553

    MW Media - Product Directories
        - Motorola Microcontroller Tools Directory
          ('94 edition out in 3 weeks)
        - Motorola 68K Source ('94 edition available now)
        - Intel Development Tools Handbook ('95 edition just beginning)
          (survey of commercial development tools for the 8051, 8096,
          and 80186 lines of Intel microprocessors)
        - Embedded Intel 386 Directory (released in Aug '94)
        - Intel 486/Pentium directory (forthcoming in '95)
        - 8051 Product Directory ('94 edition out in 4 weeks)
          (survey of various 8051 products)
        - Hitachi Microcontroller Development Tools Directory
          (out in '95)
        - AMD FusionE86 Directory (out in '95)
        - AMD 29K Directory (pending in '95)
        - Low Power Product Directory (out in '95)
          (3.3. volts and lower)
        - DSP Directory (released in May '94)
        - Multimedia CD (hopefully out in '95)
        - These documents could very well be a "must" if you're into
          serious development using any of these chips.  If you are
          "just" a hobbyist, see how the "other half" lives.
        - FREE to qualified developers
        - MW Media
        - Fairmont Plaza, 50 W. San Fernando, #675, San Jose, CA  95113
        - (408)288-4721   (408)286-4200   FAX: (408)288-4728

    Nuts & Volts Magazine
        - A National Publication for the Buying and Selling of
          Electronic Equipment
        - 430 Princeland Court, Corona, CA  91719
        - Mailed third class, USA only:  $17.00 one year
                                         $31.00 two years
        - Mailed first class, one year only:  $34.00-USA
        - Foreign/Air Mail - $70.00;  Foreign/Surface - $39.00
        - (800)783-4624
        - Email:  74262.3664@Compuserve.com

9.4) USENET newsgroups

    Various newsgroups frequently have discussions or information on
    various microcontrollers.  Among some of the more useful (especially
    the first 3 newsgroups):

       Microcontrollers figure heavily in robotics projects.  You will
       find a lot of information about the subject in this newsgroup.
       Even if you aren't building a robot, check this newsgroup out.
       Lots of 68hc11 activity, too.

    comp.arch.embedded (great!)
       This is a great newsgroup.  Well targetted discussions on aspects
       of embedded systems and microcontrollers.

    sci.electronics (lots of traffic, but good)
    alt.comp.hardware.homebuilt (too much nonsense on PCs)
       Some good places to find [mostly technical] discussions on
       microcontroller use and implementation.  Most of the participants
       are crazy about "rolling their own", and are eager to share their
       knowledge.  These groups aren't well focused, and many subjects
       that aren't relevant to embedded control are covered here.

       Since embedded systems (controllers/processors) are almost always
       used in real time applications, this group could prove to be
       useful.  Occasional discussions about various microcontroller

       This newsgroup, although not well populated, contains discussions
       on various projects featured in The Computer Journal (see the
       section on periodicals).

       The full line of Motorola 68000 microprocessors is discussed in
       this newsgroup, including the very powerful and advanced embedded
       processors and microcontrollers based on this family.

       This newsgroup covers an old-time favorite, the 6809
       microprocessor, which is commonly used for control applications.
       Motorola 8 bit microprocessors and microcontrollers (6805, 6811,
       etc.) are also discussed in this newsgroup.

       Mostly trends and development are discussed in this newsgroup.
       From time to time you will find a discussion on some technical
       problem or feature.  This newsgroup is usually fairly useless.
       For a while the participants spent most of their time whining
       about the Pentium bug.  Now they're all moaning about Microsoft,
       PowerPCs, and everything else BUT Intel parts.  I propose changing
       the name of this group to alt.crybabies.boo.hoo.hoo.

       Sometimes questions or discussions on different microcontroller
       topics pop up here.  I guess it's the ".misc" that attracts these

       Fuzzy logic is rapidly becoming an increasingly important aspect
       of [embedded] control systems.  This group might very well become
       an important forum for those involved in developing control

       Discussions on Digital Signal Processsing

       Texas Instruments products discussed here

       This forum is for the discussion of control and embedded systems.


9.5) Internet sources of information on specific microcontrollers

    If you are interested in finding sources of information on a specific
    microcontroller, check out the really fine FAQs ;-) that have been
    compiled for the more popular microcontrollers.

      Subject:  PIC microcontrollers
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu :  
      Maintainer:  Tom Kellett
                   Email: Tom@takdsign.demon.co.uk

      Subject:  8051 microcontrollers
      Newsgroups:  comp.sys.intel
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu :  
      Maintainer:  Russ Hersch
                   Email: russ@silicom.co.il

      Subject:  68hc11 microcontrollers
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu :  
      Maintainer:  Russ Hersch
                   Email: russ@silicom.co.il

      Subject:  Motorola 68K microprocessor line
      Newsgroups:  comp.sys.m68k
      Archive:  ftp.ee.ualberta.ca : pub/motorola/general
                ftp.luth.se : /pub/misc/motorola/faq
                file name of archive is m68kfaq?.zip (? is version)
      Comments:  - also includes information on the 683xxx and 68hc16
                 - without a doubt, one of the finest FAQs ever written
                 (well, of course Bob paid me to say this ;-)
      Maintainer:  Robert Boys - Ontario, Canada
                   Email: r.boys@genie.geis.com

      Subject:  ST6 microcontroller FAQ
      Newsgroups: sci.electronics
      Maintainer:  Emilio Caggiano - caggiano@vm.csata.it
                   Jerry van Kampen - ersicjer@er.ele.tue.nl
                   Leonhard Schneider - ubie@rz.uni-karlsruhe.de

    Several other FAQs have been compiled that address various aspects of
    microcontroller design and implementation.

      Subject:  I2C protocol
      Newsgroups:  sci.electronics
      Comments:    The I2C bus is a simple 2 wire serial interface
                   developed by Philips.  A number of 8051 variants as
                   well as several peripherals include I2C support.
      Maintainer:  Vincent Himpe
                   Email: Vincent.Himpe@ping.be

      Subject:  Robotics
      Newsgroups:  comp.robotics
      Maintainer:  Kevin Dowling
                   Email: nivek@ri.cmu.edu
                   Smail: Carnegie Mellon University
                          The Robotics Institute
                          Pittsburgh, PA 15213

      Subject:  Electronics
      Newsgroups:  sci.electronics
      Comments:  There are a number of FAQs available in this newsgroup
                 on various subjects.  Among some of the subjects covered
                 are:  LCDs, stepper motors, suppliers, etc.

      Subject:  Real-time
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime, comp.answers, news.answers
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu : pub/usenet/comp.realtime
      Maintainer:  Mark Linimon
                       Lonesome Dove Computing Services
                       Roanoke, Virginia
                   Email: linimon@nominil.lonesome.com.

      Subject:  Neural Networks
      Newsgroups:  comp.ai.neural-nets,comp.answers,news.answers
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu : pub/usenet/neural-net-faq
      Maintainer:  Lutz Prechelt
                   Email: prechelt@ira.uka.de

      Subject:  Fuzzy Logic
      Newsgroups:  comp.ai.fuzzy,comp.answers,news.answers
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu : pub/usenet/fuzzy-logic/
      Maintainer:  Mark Kantrowitz
                   Email: mkant+@cs.cmu.edu

      Subject:  Embedded Systems FAQ Roadmap
      Comments:  Lists various sources of information on embedded systems
                 found on the Internet
      Archive:  email cera@netcom.com
                send EMBFAQ in SUBJECT line
      Maintainer:  CERA Research

      Subject:  alt.comp.hardware.homebuilt FAQ
      Newsgroups:  alt.comp.hardware.homebuilt
      Comments:  This file contains frequently asked questions (FAQ) and
                 general information pertaining to the newsgroup
      Maintainer:  Mark Sokos (msokos1@gl.umbc.edu)